The role of biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment is rapidly evolving. As knowledge about the molecular biology of cancer continues to expand, identification of actionable biomarkers (biological changes occurring in the body such as protein expression, receptors, hormones, enzymes, as well as both somatic and germline genetic mutations) continues to increase. Biomarkers (also referred to as "tumor markers" or "molecular markers") have enabled researchers to better understand cancer subtypes and to develop targeted anti-cancer therapies. The National Cancer Institute has compiled a list of commonly used biomarkers, their associated cancer types, and how the marker is used. View the list.